# BASES & ANALYSES OF MEASUREMENT UNIT SYSTEMS

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These chapters of Part 4 lay the measurement unit groundwork which goes hand-in-hand with the numerical work that was done in Part 2. Here analyses, both conceptual and specific, are given for the underlying basis for the system of units that were used with the mathematical-geometric values developed in Part 2.

Chapter 4.1 Measurement Units & Scales General Introduction
Introduces the concept of the absolute necessity of using measurement units with all numerical values. Among several other topics, this report discusses the conceptual or definitional differences between relative, absolute, and universal measurement units. Admittedly this chapter is long. This is because of the almost complete lack of teaching and discussion of measurement units in grade schools, high schools, and even at college levels in the United States. Thus much information needs to be filled in on this subject. Chapter/article overview & scope below.

Chapter 4.2 Absolute Measurement Systems – Example Of Usage
Gives a short demonstration of the use of absolute scaled values, using the gas laws. Some of the final results of this demonstration carry implications for the measurement unit system work done in the later chapters of this Part 4. Chapter/article introduction & scope below.

Chapter 4.3 Measurement Systems Bases
Introduces the measurement unit system basis that is used in this work. Thorough analyses are made of the conceptual definitional and mathematical bases of the human scientific metric system of scales. Implications are explored of the flaws or limitations built into these relative measurement units for any absolute physics scales that may be based upon them. Admittedly this chapter is long. This is because of the incredibly tangled web that science and in particular physics has made of the mathematical and conceptual bases underlying the SI set of relative scales. Thus picking thru this maze requires much thought and explanations. Chapter/article introduction & scope below.

Chapter 4.4 Analysis Of Measurement systems I
Begins an analysis of absolute physics scale grid works. The human absolute physics Squigs scales used in this work along with their underlying relative metric scales are compared in a side-by-side fashion with a completely fictitious set of parallel relative Samanthan Feline scales and absolute Samanthan Purrfect scales. Admittedly this chapter is long. This is because the construction, proper use, and detailed analyses of absolute physics scales appear to not be taught at all to university level engineering and science students in the United States. Thus, again, much needs to be presented and learned on this topic. Chapter/article abstract below.

Chapter 4.5 Analysis Of Measurement systems II
Continues the analysis of absolute scales and grid works. In this chapter repeated difficulty is run into as several attempts are made to prove the universality, measurement unit system independence, of the key scaling constants used in this work in Part 2. Ultimately a conclusion is reached that there is something incompatible between the human unit systems and the Samanthan unit systems as they are defined in Chapter 4.4.  Chapter/article introduction below.

Chapter 4.6 Analysis Of Measurement systems III
Completes the systems analysis to show the universality of the numerical constants used in Part 2. This is done in a very rapid manner, once the issue is exposed of the compatibility or lack thereof between different measurement scale systems. Chapter/article introduction below.

Note the below content listing will NOT transfer you to the indicated location in this Part of the book.  You must download the PDF file. The listings are just to indicate the depth of material contained in this book.

 PART 4 List Of Contents Page Introduction/Scope 1 Chapter 4.1     Measurement Units & Scales General Introduction 6 Chapter 4.2     Absolute Measurement Systems – Example Of Usage 28 Chapter 4.3     Measurement Systems Bases 37 Chapter 4.4     Analyses Of Measurement Systems I 63 Chapter 4.5     Analyses Of Measurement Systems II 87 Chapter 4.6     Analyses Of Measurement Systems III 98 PART 4 List Of Tables Table Page Introduction/Scope, Table 1, Basic Physical Constants Used In This Work 4 Chapter 2, Table 1, Demonstration Of Using Side-by-Side Systems Of Scales 34 Chapter 3, Table 1, Absolute Physics Measurement Scales 41 Chapter 3, Table 2 Absolute Systems of Scales – Measurement Units Versus System Bases 48 Chapter 3, Table 3, Results Of Magnetic Force Integral 53 Chapter 4, Table 1 Systems Of Scales – Comparisons And Conversions Of Relative Measures 68 Chapter 4, Table 2, Systems Of Scales – Critical Data Conversions 70 Chapter 4, Table 3, Systems Of Scales – Absolute Scale Conversions 72 Chapter 4, Table 4       , Systems Of Scales – Scale Values Equilibrated 74 Chapter 4, Table 5, Mixed Relative Numerator Parameter / Absolute DenominatorParameter Equalizations 79 Chapter 4, Table 6, Systems Of Scales – Derivation Of α With Units 83 Chapter 5, Table 1, Systems Of Scales – Demonstration Of Essential Constants For Electron Properties 90 Chapter 6, Table 1       , Measurement Systems For Comparison 101 Chapter 6, Table 2, Results of Measurement Systems Comparisons – SI Analogous Bases 103 Chapter 6, Table 3, Results of Measurement Systems Comparisons – Independent System Bases 104 PART 4 List Of Figures Figure Page Chapter 3, Figure 1, Definition Of The Ampere 53 Chapter 4, Figure 1, Relative-Absolute Unit Conversions – Path Dependency? 78 Chapter 5, Figure 1, Inside To Outside, Rule To Application – For Unit Conversions 95

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Chapter 4.1 Measurement Units & Scales General Introduction (excerpt)
Overview & Scope
This report will begin at the very beginning of mathematics, science, and engineering. The use of numbers is taught in elementary school. The concept and use of measurement units which rightfully go with numbers appears to be sadly lacking, neglected, misunderstood, or even treated with distain by some technical persons. There are several facets related to units of measure which need to be clarified and even emphasized before further discussions of analyses of measurement systems are reached later in this Part of these collected reports.

First the utter necessity of having measurement units associated with numbers cannot be denied. There cannot be a meaningful discussion involving any enumeration, quantity, or quality without measurement units. Specifically in this report ratios are thoroughly discussed, since the making of a ratio is the means by which many persons attempt to “do away with” units. The concept of the applicability and scope of all units of measure are examined. Thus definitions can be made of whether a unit is of a relative nature, is absolute, or universal in scope. The zeroing of the lower reference of a scale for a unit of measurement is emphasized as not being that which makes the unit absolute. Rather whether the scale reveals something about the inherent structure of the topic of discussion is what makes of a scale absolute or not. The construction of scales is discussed and how to rigorously map a value, a position on one scale, to another scale for linear scales. Thus what is left out of and thus forgotten by all the shortcut unit conversion formulas and tables is again brought to light. Finally the topic of dimensions is touched upon and what various groups of technical persons mean by this word.

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Chapter 4.2 Absolute Measurement Systems – Example Of Usage (excerpt)
Introduction & Scope
In this report some specific preliminaries will be started that will set the stage for the focus of the work in Part 4. This work of course is to investigate the mathematical-geometric aspects of both the leptons and photons. These wave forms (particles) need to be considered from a view which includes both the numerical and units aspects needed to make complete equations. Thus a beginning is made here by demonstrating a side-by-side example of the use of absolute measurement systems from two well known and understood set of scales. For this purpose relative measurement units and absolute units from the American Industrial, AI, and metric SI sets of scales will be used.

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Chapter 4.3 Measurement Systems Bases (excerpt)
Introduction & Scope
In this report measurement systems bases are analyzed, specifically those which underlay the work throughout Part 2. First in Section 2 for comparative purposes there is a brief review several historical attempts at “natural” or absolute systems of scales. Discussions are presented as to what are some the underlying conceptual assumptions and weaknesses of these historical absolute scales. Then the system of scales which are used in this work is introduced. These are the absolute physics Squigs Scales. In Section 3 explanations are given about why the various choices were made for this absolute physics scale system and why the other preexisting absolute scale systems were rejected.

In Section 4 a very important topic related to the absolute scale systems is examined. This is the distinction between the number of underlying bases and the number of parameters or units that a measurement expression might have.

In Section 5 the hidden bases underlying the historical relative or common SI set of scales are delved into. Several underlying arbitrary Terran human definitional fiats and geometric assumptions are seen to de facto cross link several of the supposedly independent scales for length, time, mass and static electrical charge, (L, T, M, and Q). Sections 6-8 summarize the effects that these unseen bases have for both the relative SI scales and any absolute scale systems which derive from them.

In Section 9 a few final critical questions are asked concerning several of the bases of the absolute scale systems. These questions arise from the underlying nature of the force laws upon which the absolute scale systems are built.

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Chapter 4.4 Analyses Of Measurement Systems I (excerpt)
Abstract
Two systems of absolute physics subatomic measurement scales are developed. These scales apply to the size and duration realm of the basic electromagnetic waveforms (particles), the leptons and photons alike. With these scales the verification of three elementary physics constants will be begun. These constants were first developed in the lepton and photon reports from mathematical-geometrical considerations. The verification here will be from an approach which is completely independent from the mathematical-geometric developments used earlier. The analysis of measurement systems will be used here. This will be done in a in a side-by-side manner for each of the two absolute scale systems that have been laid out. These mathematical-geometric constants which are not unitless can be stated as having conceptual meta units. Thus, because these constants have general parametric units associated with them, their numerical values are measurement system independent. A journey will be started to demonstrate how these particular constants are universal and in the case of one constant this journey will be finished. The completion of this objective for the other two constants of concern will need to be held over until Analyses of Measurement Systems III.

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Chapter 4.5 Analyses Of Measurement Systems II (excerpt)
Introduction
In this report the investigation of measurement systems will be continued and the work towards demonstrating the numerical universality or measurement system independence of the two conversion constants or scaled parameter connectors:

electron mass1 / radial distance, 1.861432 x 10+05 (M relative /L absolute)
electron charge2 / radial distance, 5.245406 x 10-03 (Q2 relative /L absolute)

These will be first pass attempts and will serve the purpose of highlighting some further issues of correct ways to proceed in this and any future similar such efforts. Ultimately after having learned all the necessary correct procedural steps, the conclusion will be forced that there is still something awry with the efforts here in Analyses of Measurement Systems II with respect to these two constants. What will be found is that the ultimate objective of proving the universality of these constants is valid and equally the efforts and procedures which have been used are correct. What will be found is that there is something in the nature of one of the measurement systems or frameworks that were used in these efforts which has not been conducive to the desired objectives from the very start.

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Chapter 4.6 Analyses Of Measurement Systems III (excerpt)
Introduction
In this report the investigation or analyses of measurement systems will be continued. Different categories of measurement systems will be examined to see how they affect the particle physics research of this work. This report will also highlight the ultimate broader applicability of this work to the mathematical physics of other intelligent species.

In Analyses of Measurement Systems I, side-by-side sets of relative and absolute scale or measurement systems were developed. These systems were thoroughly examined and much was learned about their nature and correct and incorrect usages. The relatively simple demonstration of the numerical universality or measurement system independence of the photon constant 1 / (2α) = 68,517,994,75 (ML)(L/T)_absolute was given there. This constant for the photon was clearly and unequivocally demonstrated to carry the absolute conceptual or meta units (ML)(L/T).

In Analyses of Measurement Systems II, few final critical insights were learned about how to approach two of the necessary parameter connectors, mathematical-geometric constants which were developed in the lepton report. But regardless of how the procedural efforts were changed or the view of working with these two constants

electron mass1 / radial distance, 1.861432 x 10+05 (M relative /L absolute)
electron charge2 / radial distance, 5.245406 x 10-03 (Q2 relative /L absolute)

their independence from specific measurement systems could not be demonstrated satisfactorily. That is to the extent and in the manner as would be liked by any engineer or scientist. Ultimately a reexamination of the entire analytical setup and the assumptions underlying the demonstrations was needed.

What will be found in this report is:

1    The numerical values of the two physical constants above (Me-rel / Labs and Q2e-rel / Labs) with their specified units are indisputably valid for a specific category of measurement systems.
2    The algebraic approaches and the material learned in Analyses of Measurement Systems I & II are likewise valid and valuable.
3    The failure of the efforts in System Analysis II lies with the comparator measurement system which was being used, not with the objectives nor the approaches.
4    As hinted at in Measurement Systems Bases, Section 3.4, and in Analyses of Measurement Systems II, the problems stemmed from the measurement systems. These had behind the scenes conceptual stories that were discussed at length in Measurement Systems Bases. By their choices of measurement systems, intelligent beings had overlaid various conceptual narratives upon physical reality. Further as will be seen in this report very shortly, different measurement systems contain different stories so as to make some of them incompatible with each other and with this work.

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